Engineers, architects, water specialists, pollution experts, farm research scientists, doctors, social scientists, and environmentalists etc. have joined hands to promote the Urine Diverting Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) as a new approach to manage human waste, namely, urine and faeces.
While urine is a liquid fertilizer with tremendous potential for using in agriculture, faeces can contain pathogens that are harmful to human beings and contaminate water, soil etc. In UDDTs, faeces, urine and wash water are collected separately and thus urine and wash water are not allowed to mix with faeces. Urine collected (e.g., in a jerry can) can be used as liquid fertilizer in kitchen gardens or for other crops. Faeces is collected in a chamber and allowed to compost over a period of time (18 months). Wash water is let into a filter bed near the toilet to raise crops. Thus, UDDTs ‘close the sanitation loop’ by turning human waste into a nutrient for raising crops. UDDTs are most suitable in areas of water logging, water scarcity, dry, sandy and coastal areas.
USE AND MAINTENANCE
· Remove the lid.
· After putting a bit of ash into the drop hole, sit in such a way that the faecal matter drops directly into the drop hole.
· After defecating, sprinkle a handful of ash or saw dust or lime powder into the drop hole. Over the faecal matter.
· Close the drop hole with the lid
· Move a few centimetres backwards and complete washing your body.
· Wash your hands thoroughly using soap or ash after using the UDD Toilet.
- Explain usage practices carefully and many times – till users follow them scrupulously!
- Ensure that the lid is closed after defecation.
- While washing after defecation, ensure that water does not enter the drop hole. But if a few drops of urine or wash water enter the drop hole, apply a little extra ash/saw dust or lime.
- Apply ash carefully over the faeces so that it does not fall inside the urine bowl or washbowl – since this may clog the flow of liquids
- Remove any spillage on the rim of the drop hole during defecation, with a small piece of paper or wet cloth which may then be dropped inside the drop hole into the chamber.
- Wipe the floor of the toilet outside the urine bowl and washbowl with a waste cloth or mop, (purchased from the market).
- Keep ash in a small container inside the toilet.
- After one year of closing the chamber remove the cement mortar, take out the slab. The compost can then be taken by hands without any hesitation (it has been tried and tested!). This can be done by the house owners themselves – and there is no need to hire sanitary workers or a vehicle to remove the compost from the chamber.
- Replace the mosquito net in the vent pipe cowl once in 6 months
- Educate the user about the dehydration of the faeces and the essence of the UDDT – and that the lesser the water used for washing after defecation the better it is! Inform them also that while they need only 2-3 litres for washing after defecating in a UDDT around 8 - 10 litres is needed to push the faeces out of sight in the conventional flush toilets.
DO’S AND DON’TS
- Cover the floor with dry powdered ash/saw dust or lime powder (in order to absorb moisture from the floor), before using the chamber for the first time.
- Keep ash or saw dust in a bucket inside the toilet – Always!
- Sprinkle ash over the faeces and cover the drop hole with the lid, after use.
- Keep water in a small bucket and use a small mug.
- Keep a brush/small piece of cloth fixed to a stick for cleaning the pan at regular intervals. If need be use a damp cloth for cleaning the pan.
- Wash hands with soap after defecation & after handling the urine container or cleaning pan.
- Level the content of the first chamber when it is 75% full, and also apply ash or saw dust or lime at the top and seal the chamber for composting for nine months. Start using the second chamber.
- Wear gloves while emptying the vault and wash hands with soap afterwards.
- Make sure the vent pipe is straight and extends at least 15 cm above the roof.
- Ensure that the cowl at the top of the vent pipe is covered with mosquito netting.
- Instruct new users and children in the proper use of the toilet.
- Mark the chamber that is not in use or sealed for composting - so that it is not opened!
- Place water in the toilet, in a small bucket with a mug, for anal washing.
- Do not use both the chambers at the same time.
- Do not allow urine or water to not enter the faeces chamber
- Do not use chemicals, acids and water for cleaning the pan.
- Do not use partially digested or fresh excreta as fertilizer since it can be harmful.
- Do not empty the vault before nine months after sealing it for processing
- Do not allow rain water to enter the pan from vent pipe or from ventilator or door.
- Do not leave urine container open and unprotected
- Do not urinate standing, the urine will splash on the latrine floor causing foul odour.
- Do not make any provision for a water tap inside the toilet.